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Contrary to most other food bottle categories, canning jars have indeed received significant attention from researchers.

The incredible variation in jar brands, and in particular, the hundreds of different closure types, has piqued the interest of collectors and researchers for decades and inspired many authors to approach this category with zeal and research depth (Toulouse 1969; Creswick & Rodrigues 1969; Roller 1983; Creswick 1987; others).

The incredible variety of fruit/canning jar closures were a prime example of closure importance - a subject discussed later on this page.

(A "Lightning" bail type canning jar closure is shown on the canning jar pictured below.) Due to the similarities, this typology section also contains the large category of fruit/canning jars as they were definitely designed and used for food preservation containers though envisioned and marketed as being indefinitely re-usable (until broken) whereas the other food containers discussed here were largely used once and discarded.

The organization used here simply made more sense given the author's experience and the specific goals of this website.

(The image to the right above is of an assortment of gothic style food bottles known to date from 1865 as they were recovered from the Steamship Republic Undoubtedly the best reference book on food bottles is Betty Zumwalt's "Ketchup, Pickles, Sauces - 19th Century Food in Glass" (1980) which has extensive coverage of just about every class of food bottle, excluding canning jars.

His work was prompted by the offering of a reward in 1795 by the French government (12,000 francs) for a viable food preservation process.Glass in particular, provided a combination of unique qualities not available with early day ceramic or metal containers, i.e., ease of manufacture, impermeability to the atmosphere, and inert in contact with virtually all food product contained within imparting no "off" flavors (Bender 1986; Jones 1993).(Note: Bender [1986] contains an excellent though succinct overview of early 19th century food preservation efforts, although the book is primarily devoted to the major closures used by the glass packing industry during the first half of the 20th century.) Although the variety of different shaped glass containers used for food products was quite extensive, many classes of food bottles and jars do share a couple traits in common.Many solid food bottle/jars also tended to be larger sized bottles since food was (and is) consumed in larger quantities than most other products like medicine or (hopefully) liquor.Of note is the fact that since the preservation of the bottled food products over time was of paramount importance, many food bottles/jars were designed around the closure which was virtually always the primary critical link for long term storage (Toulouse 1969a; Bender 1986).

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